Routers are devices that connect two more networks that use a similar process. A router contains software and hardware. Hardware can be a computer is specific device. Software consists of a special management program that regulates the flow of data between systems. Routers operate at a network layer of O.S.I model. Routers use logical and home address to connect several logically split network. They get this to connection by organizing the top network into logical network segment (sometimes small sub-network or sub-nets). Each of these sub-nets is given a logical address.
Data are grouped into packets or stop of data. Each packet in addition to presenting a physical device address has a reasonable address. The network address allows routers to more accurately and efficiently calculate the path of the computer. Routers are very complicated which installation and maintenance difficult. Gateways are devices that connect two more networks that use different protocols. They are similar in function to routes but they are more intelligent and powerful devices. A gateway can actually convert data so that network with a credit card application on computers on the far side of the gateway e.g a get way can receive email messages in a single format to convert them into another format.
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Gateway can operate in any way seven coating of the OSI model. Since Gateway perform data conversion, so they are slower in velocity and incredibly expensive devices. Repeaters are used within the network to extend the space of communication. Data process through transmission press in the form of waves or signals. The transmission media weaken signals that move through it.
The weakening of indication is called attenuation. If the info is to be transmitted beyond the utmost length of a communication mass media, signals have amplified. The devices that are accustomed to amplify the signals are called repeaters. Repeaters just work at the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters are usually two ports boxes that connect two segments.
As a signal comes in one interface, it is Regenerated and send out to the other slot. The sign is read as 1s and 0s. As 1s and 0s are transmitted, the sound can be washed. Repeaters easily extend the length of the network. No processing is required by them overhead, so very little if any performance degradation occurs. It could connect indicators from the same network type that use different kinds of cables. Repeaters can’t be used for connecting sections of different network types.
They can’t be used to portion traffic on a network to reduce congestion. Many types of network have a limit on the true number of networks that can be used at once. Bridges are used to connect similar network sections. A bridge will not pass or signals it receives. Whenever a bridge receives a sign, it determines its destination by looking at its destination and the indicators are sent because of it towards it.